Creation of Awareness about Radio active Radition Damage on the public with medias Such as TV,Radio and Websites.
Giving Permission Granted in a Document by the Authority to a Legal Person Who full fill the Requirements and Standard.
Conducting Inspection based on: Regular inspection Programme and, Request from the customer,Verification Inspection, Inspection based on past profile of the institution.
Possible actions for non-compliance: Formal instructions assured and correct the infraction, Written warning for non – compliance, Suspension of or restrictions on, operation until regulatory infraction or safety condition is corrected.
Radioactive Waste Management and Processing
Make and maintain control with all relevant persons involved with radioactive waste to provide an authoritative point of advice and guidance, Establish and maintain a detail record keeping system for all stages of radioactive waste management, including the inventory of radioactive waste, Ensure that waste package for off- site transportation is prepared to be in compliance with Transport Regulations, Ensure that appropriate shielding, labeling, physical security and integrity of waste packages, Segregation, collection and characterization of radioactive waste, Treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste.
January 16, 2019, Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority and the new emerging Salale University have signed MOU to enhance cooperation in different research programs and activities that are parallel with the major existence of the institutions.
Director General of ERPA Ato Solomon Getachew, President of Salae University Dr. Genanew Goffe, and other responsible bodies from both parties have discussed on the applicability of the MOU to achieve its objectives that are focused on the creation of awareness, practical training, regular communication and information exchange on the condition of radiation source, measurement taking, conducting cooperative research on radiation area and sharing data or measuring equipment for research purpose.
Dr, Genanew Goffe, president of the university said, as the university is new, it needs the cooperation of ERPA on laboratory instruments to give practical training for the students and researchers on the area f radiation.
ERPA is also interested to give practical training and laboratory assistance for researchers and students of the university who are in need to conduct a research on radiation source. And also the authority wants to conduct cooperative research and develop it with different symposium which can be organized by the university, said Ato Solomon, Director General at ERPA.
Finally both parties have discussed to actively benefit from the conducive environment of the university as it is surrounded by different industries which use radioactive materials for their production. Such environment will help researchers to get data for their research findings.
Classification of Radiation
Classification of Radiation
Radiation is classified into two broad groups:
- Ionizing radiation (IR):- capable of causing characteristic changes in atoms or molecules in the body which can result in tissue damage such as cancer. Examples of IR include x-rays and gamma rays.
- Non-ionizing radiation (NIR):- doesn't cause these characteristic changes but can prompt molecules to vibrate. This can lead to temperature rises, among other effects. Examples of NIR include ultraviolet radiation in sunlight, visible light, light bulbs, infrared radiation, microwave energy and radiofrequency energy.
Types of Non-Ionizing Radiation and Their Health Effects
Radiation- Energy emitted from a body or source that is transmitted through an intervening medium or space and absorbed by another body. Transmission is in the form of waves but wave/particle duality under quantum physics.
Radiation is classified as being either non-ionizing or ionizing. Non-ionizing radiation is longer wavelength/lower frequency lower energy. While ionizing radiation is short wavelength/high frequency higher energy.
Ionizing Radiation has sufficient energy to produce ions in a matter at the molecular level. If that matter is a human being significant damage can result including damage to DNA and denaturation of proteins. This is not to say that non-ionizing radiation can’t cause injury to humans but the injury is generally limited to thermal damage i.e. burns and the like.
This list is in order of lowest to highest frequency.
1. ELF (extremely low frequency) 2. Radio Frequencies 3. Microwave Frequencies
4. Lasers 5. Infrared 6. Visible Spectrum 7. Ultraviolet
Non-Ionizing Radiation Type
Power plant or line workers
Inconclusive evidence of leukemia link
Radar and communications equipment, industrial and commercial ovens
There is a great deal of controversy regarding potential cancer risks, particularly with cell phone use. We know that exposure to radio and microwave frequency sources can cause burns and clinically this is what you are most likely to see.
4. LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Beams of coherent light with single wavelength and frequency
Maybe in the IR, Visible or UV spectrum
Eye is most sensitive to injury from LASER
Four classes by a risk of injury:
1. No damage
2. Low chance of damage due to blink
3. A)Cause injury with direct exposure
B)Cause injury even when reflected
4. Requires controls to prevent injury
Penetrates superficial layers of the skin, causes
Welding, glassmaking, heating and dehydrating processes
thermal injury, a potential for damage to the cornea, iris, lens of the eye
6. Visible Spectrum
400 to 750nm wavelengths
ROYGBIV (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)
Possibility of retinal injury from 400-500 nm blue frequencies
7. Ultraviolet Radiation
200nm to 400 nm
Bridge between Non-Ionizing and Ionizing Radiations
A and B bands produce biologic effects on the skin and the eyes. Photokeratitis, conjunctivitis, sunburn, photosensitization reactions, skin cancers
Majority of exposures are to outdoor workers, other exposures include welders, people who work in drying and curing industries and laboratory, kitchen or medical industries exposed to germicidal ultraviolet
ኤሌክተሪክ እና መግነጢስ መስክ (Electric & Magnetic Fields – EMF)
ኤሌክተሪክ እና መግነጢስ መስክ (Electric & Magnetic Fields – EMF) ኤሌክትሪክ በሚመነጭባቸው፣ በሚተላለፍባቸውና አገልግሎት በሚውልበት ማንኛውም ቦታ እና ጊዜ ይኖራሉ፡፡ ኤሌክትሪክ በዘመናዊ አኗኗር ዘይቤ ላይ ብርሃን በመስጠት፣ ምግብ እንዳይበላሽ በማቀዝቀዝ፣ ቤትን በማቀዝቀዝና በማሞቅ፣ የምርመራና ህክምና መሳሪያዎች አገልግሎቶች እንዲሰጡባቸው ሀይል በመሆን፣ በምግብ ማብሰል፣ በመገናኛ ቴክኖሎጂ ወዘተ ላይ አዎንታዊ ሚናውን በመጫወት ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ ዘመናዊው ህይወትም ያለነዚህ መስኮች የማይታሰብ ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡ እና እነዚህ መስኮች ህይወት ያለው ነገር ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ነገር ይኖር ይሆን?
እንዲህ አይነቱን ጥያቄ መልስ ለመስጠት ላለፉት 4 አስርት አመታት ገደማ በብዙ ሺህ የሚቆጠሩ ሳይንሳዊ ጥናቶች በመላው አለም ላይ በበርካታ ዩኒቨርስቲዎችና የምርምር ተቋማት የተለያዩ ዘዴዎችን በመጠቀም በጤና ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ተጽዕኖ ለመዳሰስ ሞክረዋል፡፡ ከፊሉ በሰው ልጅ ላይ በተከሰቱ በሽታዎች መንስዔያቸውን፣ ከፊሉ በምርምር ላቦራቶሪ ቤተሙከራ ውስጥ እንስሳትን ለመስኮቹ በማጋለጥና ውጤቱን በማየት እንዲሁም ሌሎቹ የተለያዩ ሴሎችን በማጋለጥ እና ከመስኩ ጋር ያለውን ልዩነት በማገናዘብ የተለያዩ ዘዴዎችን ሞክረዋል፡፡
ከከፍተኛ ሀይል ተሸካሚ መስመሮች፣ ራዳር፣ የኮሙኒኬሽን መረቦች፣ ሞባይል ስልኮች እና ማይክሮዌቭ ምድጃዎች የሚፈልቁት የራዲዮ ፍሪኩዌንሲ ጨረራ ወይም ኤሌክትሮ መግነጢሳዊ መስኮች አዮን ፈጣሪ ካልሆኑ የጨረራ ምድብ ውስጥ ሲሆኑ ለበርካታ አመታት ለመገንዘብ እንደተቻለው ለነዚህ የጨረራ አይነቶች ለከፍተኛ መጠን መጋለጥ ብቻ መቃጠልን፣ አይን ግርዶሽን፣ ጊዚያዊ መሀንነትን እና ሌሎች ጉዳትን እንደሚያስከትሉ የሚታወቅ ሲሆን እነዚህኑን ዝቅተኛ መጠን ያላቸውን የጨረራ አይነቶች የሚያመነጩ መሳሪያዎች ብዛት በከፍተኛ መጠን መጨመርና ለረጅም ጊዜም ለዝቅተኛ መጠን ጨረራ መጋለጥ የያስከትሉት ተጽዕኖም አከራካሪ እና ሳይንሳዊ ትኩረትን የሚሻ ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡
የአለም ጤና ድርጅትም እስከዛሬ ድረስ ለዝቅተኛ መጠን ኤሌክትሪክ እና መግነጢሳዊ መስኮች መጋለጥ የሰው ልጅ ጤና ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ችግር መኖሩን ማስረጃ እንዳላገኘ የጥናቶቹን ውጤት ተንተርሶ ድምዳሜ ላይ ደርሷል፡፡
በዓለምም ሆነ በሀገራችን ከቴክኖሎጂ እድገትና መስፋፋት ጋር ተያይዞ ወደ ሀገር ውስጥ እየገቡና አገልግሎት እየሰጡ ያሉት አዮን ፈጣሪ ያልሆኑ ጨረራ አመንጭዎች ቁጥራቸው በመጨመር ላይ ሲሆን በተለይ ከፍተኛ መጠን በሚያመነጩት ላይ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ ክትትልና ቁጥጥር ማድረጉ ግድ ይላል፡፡