Services Undertaken By Non-Ionizing Radiation Sources And Practices Regulatory Directorate
One of the applications of Ultraviolet Radiation
Sunbeds (also known as tanning beds or solaria) are sources of artificial UV exposure that provide an indoor means for people to acquire a tan for cosmetic purposes. Over recent decades the sunbed industry has flourished and sunbeds have become very popular among adolescents and young adults, especially young women, in USA, Canada and Northern and Western Europe.
Different types of tanning units have different spectral emissions. The two main categories of units are low-pressure fluorescent tubes, emitting mostly UVA with some UVB and filtered, high-pressure lamps, emitting virtually only UVA or a mixture of UVA and UVB. Evidence of the detrimental health effects to the skin and eye of long-term UVA as well as UVB has led the sunbed industry to increase the UVB content in the emission spectrum so that it is closer to natural sun exposure (even though this varies by location, season and time of day). Since, only UVB causes long-lasting tanning, higher content of UVB emissions allow tanning to be achieved after shorter periods of exposure. Scientific evidence shows that artificial tanning poses similar health risks whether UVA-dominated or UVB-dominated sources are used.
UV effects on the body and health implications
Exposure to UV from sunbeds (or other tanning appliances) causes the same harmful health effects as exposure to solar UV. For the skin, these effects range from sunburn and photosensitization from certain products like perfumes and lotions in the short-term to photoaging and increased risk of skin cancer: basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Harmful effects to the eye can include acute inflammation of the cornea in the short-term and cataract of the lens with longer-term exposure unless protective eyewear with side protection is worn. Health risks are greater for younger users (adolescence), and with a high frequency of sunbed use.
ICNIRP recommends aganist the use of sunbeds for tanning purposes. Because of their high risk of adverse health effects from UV radiation, minors under 18 years of age and people who have a fair skin that is prone to sunburn or those who have large numbers of naevi (moles) are particularly advised against their use. Many countries have enacted legislation to regulate or ban sunbed use altogether (in order to limit vulnerable people’s exposure to artificial UV radiation for cosmetic reasons).
Where access to sunbeds is permitted, health warnings and safety information should be provided to users before tanning; UV-protective goggles should be provided and worn during use; operating staff should receive appropriate training and certification. Health educators should also warn young people in particular that their use of sunbeds for short-term cosmetic tanning substantially raises their risk of developing melanoma and other skin cancer.
Types of Non-Ionizing Radiation and Their Health Effects
Radiation- Energy emitted from a body or source that is transmitted through an intervening medium or space and absorbed by another body. Transmission is in the form of waves but wave/particle duality under quantum physics.
Radiation is classified as being either non-ionizing or ionizing. Non-ionizing radiation is longer wavelength/lower frequency lower energy. While ionizing radiation is short wavelength/high frequency higher energy.
Ionizing Radiation has sufficient energy to produce ions in a matter at the molecular level. If that matter is a human being significant damage can result including damage to DNA and denaturation of proteins. This is not to say that non-ionizing radiation can’t cause injury to humans but the injury is generally limited to thermal damage i.e. burns and the like.
This list is in order of lowest to highest frequency.
- ELF (Extremely Low Frequency) 2. Radio Frequencies 3. Microwave Frequencies 4. Lasers Infrared 6. Visible Spectrum 7. Ultraviolet
Non-Ionizing Radiation Type
Power plant or line workers
Inconclusive evidence of leukemia link
Radar and communications equipment, industrial and commercial ovens
There is a great deal of controversy regarding potential cancer risks, particularly with cell phone use. We know that exposure to radio and microwave frequency sources can cause burns and clinically this is what you are most likely to see.
4. LASER (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Beams of coherent light with single wavelength and frequency
Maybe in the IR, Visible or UV spectrum
Eye is most sensitive to injury from LASER
Four classes by a risk of injury:
1. No damage
2. Low chance of damage due to blink
3. A)Cause injury with direct exposure
B)Cause injury even when reflected
4. Requires controls to prevent injury
Penetrates superficial layers of the skin, causes
Welding, glassmaking, heating and dehydrating processes
thermal injury, a potential for damage to the cornea, iris, lens of the eye
6. Visible Spectrum
400 to 750nm wavelengths
ROYGBIV (Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet)
Possibility of retinal injury from 400-500 nm blue frequencies
7. Ultraviolet Radiation
200nm to 400 nm
Bridge between Non-Ionizing and Ionizing Radiations
A and B bands produce biologic effects on the skin and the eyes. Photokeratitis, conjunctivitis, sunburn, photosensitization reactions, skin cancers
Majority of exposures are to outdoor workers, other exposures include welders, people who work in drying and curing industries and laboratory, kitchen or medical industries exposed to germicidal ultraviolet
ኤሌክትሪክ እና መግነጢስ መስክ (Electric & Magnetic Fields – EMF)
ኤሌክትሪክ እና መግነጢስ መስክ (Electric & Magnetic Fields – EMF) ኤሌክትሪክ በሚመነጭባቸው፣ በሚተላለፍባቸውና አገልግሎት በሚውልበት ማንኛውም ቦታ እና ጊዜ ይኖራሉ፡፡ ኤሌክትሪክ በዘመናዊ አኗኗር ዘይቤ ላይ ብርሃን በመስጠት፣ ምግብ እንዳይበላሽ በማቀዝቀዝ፣ ቤትን በማቀዝቀዝና በማሞቅ፣ የምርመራና ህክምና መሳሪያዎች አገልግሎቶች እንዲሰጡባቸው ሀይል በመሆን፣ በምግብ ማብሰል፣ በመገናኛ ቴክኖሎጂ ወዘተ ላይ አዎንታዊ ሚናውን በመጫወት ላይ ይገኛል፡፡ ዘመናዊው ህይወትም ያለነዚህ መስኮች የማይታሰብ ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡ እና እነዚህ መስኮች ህይወት ያለው ነገር ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ነገር ይኖር ይሆን?
እንዲህ አይነቱን ጥያቄ መልስ ለመስጠት ላለፉት 4 አስርት አመታት ገደማ በብዙ ሺህ የሚቆጠሩ ሳይንሳዊ ጥናቶች በመላው አለም ላይ በበርካታ ዩኒቨርስቲዎችና የምርምር ተቋማት የተለያዩ ዘዴዎችን በመጠቀም በጤና ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ተጽዕኖ ለመዳሰስ ሞክረዋል፡፡ ከፊሉ በሰው ልጅ ላይ በተከሰቱ በሽታዎች መንስዔያቸውን፣ ከፊሉ በምርምር ላቦራቶሪ ቤተሙከራ ውስጥ እንስሳትን ለመስኮቹ በማጋለጥና ውጤቱን በማየት እንዲሁም ሌሎቹ የተለያዩ ሴሎችን በማጋለጥ እና ከመስኩ ጋር ያለውን ልዩነት በማገናዘብ የተለያዩ ዘዴዎችን ሞክረዋል፡፡
ከከፍተኛ ሀይል ተሸካሚ መስመሮች፣ ራዳር፣ የኮሙኒኬሽን መረቦች፣ ሞባይል ስልኮች እና ማይክሮዌቭ ምድጃዎች የሚፈልቁት የራዲዮ ፍሪኩዌንሲ ጨረራ ወይም ኤሌክትሮ መግነጢሳዊ መስኮች አዮን ፈጣሪ ካልሆኑ የጨረራ ምድብ ውስጥ ሲሆኑ ለበርካታ አመታት ለመገንዘብ እንደተቻለው ለነዚህ የጨረራ አይነቶች ለከፍተኛ መጠን መጋለጥ ብቻ መቃጠልን፣ አይን ግርዶሽን፣ ጊዚያዊ መሀንነትን እና ሌሎች ጉዳትን እንደሚያስከትሉ የሚታወቅ ሲሆን እነዚህኑን ዝቅተኛ መጠን ያላቸውን የጨረራ አይነቶች የሚያመነጩ መሳሪያዎች ብዛት በከፍተኛ መጠን መጨመርና ለረጅም ጊዜም ለዝቅተኛ መጠን ጨረራ መጋለጥ የያስከትሉት ተጽዕኖም አከራካሪ እና ሳይንሳዊ ትኩረትን የሚሻ ጉዳይ ሆኗል፡፡
የአለም ጤና ድርጅትም እስከዛሬ ድረስ ለዝቅተኛ መጠን ኤሌክትሪክ እና መግነጢሳዊ መስኮች መጋለጥ የሰው ልጅ ጤና ላይ የሚያስከትሉት ችግር መኖሩን ማስረጃ እንዳላገኘ የጥናቶቹን ውጤት ተንተርሶ ድምዳሜ ላይ ደርሷል፡፡
በዓለምም ሆነ በሀገራችን ከቴክኖሎጂ እድገትና መስፋፋት ጋር ተያይዞ ወደ ሀገር ውስጥ እየገቡና አገልግሎት እየሰጡ ያሉት አዮን ፈጣሪ ያልሆኑ ጨረራ አመንጭዎች ቁጥራቸው በመጨመር ላይ ሲሆን በተለይ ከፍተኛ መጠን በሚያመነጩት ላይ ትኩረት ሰጥቶ ክትትልና ቁጥጥር ማድረጉ ግድ ይላል፡፡
(ታደለ ነ. - ኢጨመባ)